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Eosinophil granulocyte

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    嗜酸粒细胞 Background

    Eosinophil granulocytes, also referred to as eosinophils, are a subgroup of leukocytes with coarse round granules of uniform size within their cytoplasm. Eosinophils are so named because their cytoplasmic granules stain red with the dye eosin. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow, along with other white blood cells and red blood cells. Eosinophil granulocytes normally constitute 1 to 3% of circulating white blood cells. Unlike some other circulating cells, eosinophils are also normally found outside blood vessels in organs other than bone marrow. The major stimulus for eosinophils to form in the bone marrow is the cytokines interleukin 3, interleukin 5 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). And the major stimulus for eosinophils to leave the blood stream and enter tissue seems to be the chemokines like CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL24/eotaxin-2, CCL5/RANTES, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Eosinophils are responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections, as well as mediating allergic responses and asthma pathogenesis, along with basophils and mast cells. Stimulated eosinophils release an array of cytotoxic proteins contained in their granules to destroy invasive entities and combat infection. The numbers of eosinophils in blood often rise above the normal range with allergic reactions and parasitic infections. Such conditions, in which abnormally high amounts of eosinophils are found in the blood (i.e., more than 500 eosinophils/microlitre of blood), are referred to as eosinophilia.

    嗜酸粒细胞 References

      1. Yamaguchi Y, et al. (1988). Purified interleukin 5 supports the terminal differentiation and proliferation of murine eosinophilic precursors. J Exp Med 167(1): 43-56.
      2. Denburg JA, et al. (2008) Eosinophil progenitors in airway diseases: clinical implications. Chest. 134(5):1037-43.
      3. Blanchard C, et al. (2009) Biology of the eosinophil. Adv Immunol. 101:81-121.
      4. D'Armiento JM, et al. (2009) Eosinophil and T cell markers predict functional decline in COPD patients. Respir Res. 10:113.