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细胞因子及受体

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Sino Biological offers a wide selection of tools for research on cytokines and their receptors. These include high-purity recombinant proteins, high-specific antibodies and ORF cDNA clones.

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    细胞因子及受体 Background

    Cytokine & Receptor Information

    Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. Cytokine is a general name; other names are defined based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. For example, cytokines made by lymphocytes can also be referred to as lymphokines, while interleukins are made by one leukocyte and act on other leukocytes. And chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic activities.

    Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine action).

    Several main groups of cytokines include: interleukins, chemokines, interferons, tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and TGF-beta superfamily members. Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by leukocytes. They modulate inflammation and immunity by regulating growth, mobility and differentiation of lymphoid and other cells. Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines with the ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines infected tissues release chemokines, and chemokine gradients induce leukocytes to move between endothelial cells and pass the basement membrane into the infected tissues. Interferons are cytokines which are made and released by the cells of most vertebrates in response to the presence of pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites, or tumor cells). Interferons play critical role in host defense mechanisms. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines act through ligand-mediated trimerization, causing recruitment of several intracellular adaptors to activate multiple signal transduction pathways for cell survival, death, and differentiation. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), also called haematopoietic growth factors, are secreted glycoproteins which regulate bone marrow production of circulating red and white cells, and platelets.

    An important part of Cytokines’ action on the immune system is to stimulate immune cell proliferation and differentiation. Cytokines involved in this function include interleukin 1 (IL-1), which activates T cells; IL-2, which stimulates proliferation of antigen-activated T and B cells; IL-4, IL-5

    细胞因子及受体 References

      1. Cannon JG (2000). Inflammatory Cytokines in Nonpathological States. News Physiol Sci. 15: 298-303.
      2. Howlett M, et al. (2009) Cytokine signalling via gp130 in gastric cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1793(11):1623-33.
      3. Desai D, et al. (2009) Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapy in asthma: ready for the clinic? Clin Exp Immunol. 158(1):10-9.
      4. Kunz M, et al. (2009) Cytokines and cytokine profiles in human autoimmune diseases and animal models of autoimmunity. Mediators Inflamm. 2009:979258.