S1 protein is a family of low molecular weight protein found in vertebrates characterized by two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. There are at least 21 different S1 proteins, and the name is derived from the fact that the protein is 1% soluble in ammonium sulfate at neutral pH. Most S1 proteins are disulfide-linked homodimer, and is normally present in cells derived from the neural crest, chondrocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, etc. S1 proteins have been implicated in a variety of intracellular and extracellular functions. They are involved in regulation of protein phosphorylation, transcription factors, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, enzyme activities, cell growth and differentiation, and the inflammatory response. Protein S1-A9, also known as S1 calcium-binding protein A9, S1A9, and CAGB, is a member of the S-1 family. S1A9 is expressed by macrophages in acutely inflammed tissues and in chronic inflammation. It is also expressed in epithelial cells constitutively or induced during dermatoses. S1A9 is a calcium-binding protein. It has anti-microbial activity towards bacteria and fungi. The anti-microbial and proapoptotic activity of S1A9 is inhibited by zinc ions. S1A9 plays a role in the development of endotoxic shock in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It promotes tubulin polymerization when unphosphorylated. It also promotes phagocyte migration and infiltration of granulocytes at sites of wounding. S1A9 plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation and up-regulates the release of IL8 and cell-surface expression of ICAM1.
S100 calcium binding protein A9
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