|According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), precision medicine is "an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person." This approach will allow doctors and researchers to predict more accurately which treatment and prevention strategies for a particular disease will work in which groups of people.
The United States announced the precise medicine initiative (PMI) in January 2015, budgeting $ 216 million for funding. The P.R.China put forward their own PMI development plans almost exactly one year after, its expected capital investment (60 billion Yuan, or about $ 9.2 billion) is much larger than that of the United States.
Precision medicine harnesses huge amounts of clinical data, from genome sequences to health records, to determine how drugs affect people in different ways. Although the concept of precision medicine initiative is based on the huge number of genomic data and its physical condition of different individuals, with the development of the project, a detailed interpretation of the results of genomic tests has become one of the major challenges to precision medicine.
|Since it is usually the protein, rather than the DNA/RNA, that has the functional role in cell response, the proteomic information will reflect the health state more directly. Protein microarrays were developed due to the limitations of using DNA microarrays for determining gene expression levels in proteomics. The development of precision medicine initiative will definitely require evaluating the correlation of genomics and proteomics database of individuals. As the most powerful high-throughput multiplex tool for proteomics study, the protein microarray is a promising method for bridging the treatment or prevention approaches to the information obtained in genetic test.
For example, the effective implementation of personalized cancer therapeutic regimens depends on the successful identification and translation of informative biomarkers to aid clinical decision making. Antibody-based proteomics occupies a pivotal space in the cancer biomarker discovery and validation pipeline, facilitating the high-throughput evaluation of candidate markers. Although the clinical utility of these emerging technologies remains to be established, the traditional use of antibodies as affinity reagents in clinical diagnostic and predictive assays suggests that the rapid translation of such approaches is an achievable goal. Furthermore, in combination with, or as alternatives to, genomic and transcriptomic methods for patient stratification, antibody-based proteomics approaches offer the promise of additional insight into cancer disease states.
Protein microarray which has several characteristics is irreplaceable in biological research:
The protein microarray not only has great potential to be utilized for precision medicine initiative, but also for the multiple aspects in the proteomics, immunological study. There are five major areas where protein arrays are being applied: diagnostics, proteomics, protein functional analysis, antibody characterization, and treatment development. The utilities include, but not limited to, the protein-protein interaction, kinase substrate interaction, post translation modification profiling, immune response biomarker profiling, antibody specificity profiling, pathogen detection, small molecule interaction, DNA/RNA-protein interaction, etc. Its main advantage lies in the fact that large numbers of proteins can be tracked in parallel.
There are three types of protein microarrays that are currently used to study the biochemical activities of proteins.
SBI Glass Slide Based Antibody or Protein Microarray
SBI Glass Slide-based Antibody Arrays "LucidArray®" were evolutionary array platform after the chemiluminescent membrane arrays. The LucidArray® uses a SCHOTT NEXTERION® glass slide platform. The slides are manufactured from high quality borosilicate glass that has an ultra flat surface and low inherent fluorescence, features a uniform layer that provides a high covalent coupling efficiency together with a very low background. Compared to NC membrane based microarray, the glass slide based microarray is easier for handling, use of much lower sample volumes (as little as 10 μl per array). The glass slides also utilize a fluorescent signal readout, allowing a wider dynamic detection range than can be achieved by chemiluminescence.
|Glass Slide Based||NC Membrane Based|
|Coupling on Support Surface||Covalent||Physical Absorbance|
|Sample Volume||Extremly Low||Very Low|
|Signal Readout||Laser Scanner||Chemiluminescence Imaging System|
|Dynamic Detection Range||Wider||Wide|
|Price per Data||Cheaper||Cheap|
Protein microarray Background
Protein microarray (or protein chip) is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins, and to determine their function on a large scale. The chip consists of a support surface such as a glass slide, nitrocellulose membrane, bead, or microtiter plate, to which an array of capture proteins is bound. Probe molecules, typically labeled with a fluorescent dye, are added to the array.