S100A9: S100A9 Protein | S100A9 Antibody

S100A9 Gene family

S100A9 Background

S1 protein is a family of low molecular weight protein found in vertebrates characterized by two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. There are at least 21 different S1 proteins, and the name is derived from the fact that the protein is 1% soluble in ammonium sulfate at neutral pH. Most S1 proteins are disulfide-linked homodimer, and is normally present in cells derived from the neural crest, chondrocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, etc. S1 proteins have been implicated in a variety of intracellular and extracellular functions. They are involved in regulation of protein phosphorylation, transcription factors, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, enzyme activities, cell growth and differentiation, and the inflammatory response. Protein S1-A9, also known as S1 calcium-binding protein A9, S1A9, and CAGB, is a member of the S-1 family. S1A9 is expressed by macrophages in acutely inflammed tissues and in chronic inflammation. It is also expressed in epithelial cells constitutively or induced during dermatoses. S1A9 is a calcium-binding protein. It has anti-microbial activity towards bacteria and fungi. The anti-microbial and proapoptotic activity of S1A9 is inhibited by zinc ions. S1A9 plays a role in the development of endotoxic shock in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It promotes tubulin polymerization when unphosphorylated. It also promotes phagocyte migration and infiltration of granulocytes at sites of wounding. S1A9 plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation and up-regulates the release of IL8 and cell-surface expression of ICAM1.

Reference for S100A9

  • Miyasaki KT. et al., 1993, J Dent Res. 72: 517-23.
  • Fanò G. et al., 1995, Prog Neurobiol. 46 (1): 71-82.
  • Vogl T. et al., 2004, Blood. 104: 4260-8.
  • Viemann D. et al., 2005, Blood. 105: 2955-62.
  • Nakatani Y. et al., 2005, Mediators Inflamm. 2005: 280-92.
  • Bjoerk P. et al., 2009, PLoS Biol. 7: E97-E97.

S100A9 Protein

S100A9 protein function

S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinflammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on 'Cys-247' proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12626582, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15331440, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15598812, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15642721, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16258195, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19087201, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19122197, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19402754, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19534726, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19935772, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20103766, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21325622, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21487906, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22363402, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22804476, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22808130, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25417112, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8423249}.

S100A9 protein expression

Tissue specificity

Calprotectin (S100A8/9) is predominantly expressed in myeloid cells. Except for inflammatory conditions, the expression is restricted to a specific stage of myeloid differentiation since both proteins are expressed in circulating neutrophils and monocytes but are absent in normal tissue macrophages and lymphocytes. Under chronic inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis and malignant disorders, also expressed in the epidermis. Found in high concentrations at local sites of inflammation or in the serum of patients with inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, giant cell arteritis, cystic fibrosis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and progressive systemic sclerosis. Involved in the formation and deposition of amyloids in the aging prostate known as corpora amylacea inclusions. Strongly up-regulated in many tumors, including gastric, esophageal, colon, pancreatic, bladder, ovarian, thyroid, breast and skin cancers.

S100A9 protein sequence

This sequence information is just for reference only.From Uniport

  • Length
    114.00
  • Mass (Da)
    13.00

S100A9 Antibody

There are 8 S100A9 antibodies which are validated in multiple tissues with various applications, including FCM, ICC/IF, WB, ELISA, IHC-P. There are 3 S100A9 antibody for FCM, 1 S100A9 antibody for ICC/IF, 1 S100A9 antibody for WB, 4 S100A9 antibody for ELISA, 3 S100A9 antibody for IHC-P. Among all these S100A9 antibodies, there are 3 anti-S100A9 mouse monoclonal antibodies , 2 anti-S100A9 rabbit monoclonal antibodies , 3 anti-S100A9 rabbit polyclonal antibodies . All the S100A9 anbodies are produced in house and all are in stock. S100A9 antibody customerized service is available.

S100A9 Gene

S100A9 gene / cDNA is a protein-coding gene which located on 1q21.3. The S100A9 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, and chicken.101 organisms have orthologs with human gene S100A9.