BMP-7 (Bone morphogenetic protein 7), also known as osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1), is a bone morphogenetic protein which belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. OP-1 is expressed in the brain, kidneys and bladder. BMP-7 may be involved in bone homeostasis. Osteogenic protein 1 plays a key role in the transformation of mesenchymal cells into bone and cartilage. The phosphorylation of SMAD1 and SMAD5 can be induced by BMP-7, which in turn induce transcription of numerous osteogenic genes. BMP-7 treatment can also induce all of the genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation in many cell types. The expression of BMP-7 causes ventral phenotypes while its complete inhibition creates a dorsal phenotype. Human recombinant BMP-7 protein can be used to aid in the fusion of vertebral bodies to prevent neurologic trauma. It also functions in the treatment of tibial non-union, frequently in cases where a bone graft has failed. It is found that BMP7 has the potential for treatment of chronic kidney disease.