The Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 1, CXCL1, is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GRO?, KC, Neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MSGA-a). CXCL1 already known to be important in osteoarthritis (OA), as a novel target gene of transcription factor AP-2? in chondrocytes and support the important role of AP-2? in cartilage. CXCL1 is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant with recognized roles in angiogenesis and inflammation. CXCL1 is a novel immediate PTH/PTHrP-responsive gene. CXCL1 may act as a chemoattractant for osteoclast precursors. CXCL1 may also have important pro-nociceptive effects via its direct actions on sensory neurons, and may induce long-term changes that involve protein synthesis. CXCL1 plays a critical nonredundant role in the development of experimental Lyme arthritis and carditis via CXCR2-mediated recruitment of neutrophils into the site of infection. CXCL1 functions through CXCR2 to transactivate the EGFR by proteolytic cleavage of HB-EGF, leading to activation of MAPK signalling and increased proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. It might limit tumor growth by reinforcing senescence early in tumorigenesis. Thus, CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis.