Chromosomal translocations leading to deregulated expression of ETS transcription factors are frequent in prostate tumors. ESE1/ELF3 was induced by interleukin (IL)-1beta through NF-kappaB and was a crucial mediator of the phenotypic and transcriptional changes induced by IL-1beta in prostate cancer cells. ESE1/ELF3 was overexpressed in human primary and metastatic tumors. E74-like factor 3 (ELF3) protein levels are increased in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, that ELF3 accounts for inflammatory cytokine-driven MMP13 gene expression, and that, upon induction by interleukin-1beta, ELF3 binds to the COL2A1 promoter and suppresses its activity in chondrocytes. ELF3 is a favorable prognostic marker for ovarian cancer. As a negative regulator of EMT, ELF3-modulated reversal of EMT may be a new effective modality in the treatment of ovarian cancer.