Immunoprecipitation is a technique in which an antigen is isolated by binding to a specific antibody attached to a sedimentable matrix. It is also used to analyze protein fractions separated by other techniques such as gel filtration or density gradient sedimentation. The source of antigen for immunoprecipitation can be unlabeled cells or tissues, metabolically or intrinsically labeled cells, or in vitro-translated proteins. This unit describes a wide range of immunoprecipitation techniques, using either suspension or adherent cells lysed by various means.Usually, plasmas transfected cells or natural cells are ideal sample for immunoprecipitation.
Antigens from the sample are attached to a surface. Then, a further specific antibody is applied over the surface so it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and, in the final step, a substance containing the enzyme's substrate is added. The subsequent reaction produces a detectable signal, most commonly a color change in the substrate.
Performing an ELISA involves at least one antibody with specificity for a particular antigen. The sample with an unknown amount of antigen is immobilized on a solid support (usually a polystyrene microtiter plate) either non-specifically (via adsorption to the surface) or specifically (via capture by another antibody specific to the same antigen, in a "sandwich" ELISA). After the antigen is immobilized, the detection antibody is added, forming a complex with the antigen. The detection antibody can be covalently linked to an enzyme, or can itself be detected by a secondary antibody that is linked to an enzyme through bioconjugation. Between each step, the plate is typically washed with a mild detergent solution to remove any proteins or antibodies that are non-specifically bound. After the final wash step, the plate is developed by adding an enzymatic substrate to produce a visible signal, which indicates the quantity of antigen in the sample.
Moreover, the immunoprecipitation antibodies were conjugated to magnetic beads, which can capture antigen in sample then condense the antigen for ELISA detection. By this way many target proteins which are can on be detected by normal ELISA procedure,also can be detected.