Immunohistochemistry / IHC Antibody-Cancer

Background

Immunohistochemistry is the localization of antigens or proteins in tissue sections by the use of labeled antibodies as specific reagents through antigen-antibodyinteractions. Immunohistochemical antibody is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors. Immunohistochemical antibody is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. Cancer is a class of diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Normally, cell proliferation is under tight control through many mechanisms. For example, DNA damage and repair mechanisms exist in order to decrease the likelihood of genetic mutation and cell transformation. Apoptosis is needed to destroy cells that represent a threat to the integrity of the organism. In addition, the immune system is ready to recognize and destroy cancerous cells. However these error-correction methods often fail in small ways, especially in environments that make errors more likely to arise and propagate. Accumulating disruptions in these control mechanisms lead to progressive error accumulation until unregulated proliferation and cancer forming.