INSR (Insulin receptor), also known as CD22, is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin. INSR belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and exists as a tetramer consisting of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits linked by disulfide bonds. The alpha and beta subunits are encoded by a single INSR gene, and the beta subunits pass through the cellular membrane. As the receptor for insulin with tyrosine-protein kinase activity, INSR associates with downstream mediators upon binding to insulin, including IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K). IRS-1 binding and phosphorylation eventually lead to an increase in the high-affinity glucose transporter (Glut4) molecules on the outer membrane of insulin-responsive tissues. INSR isoform long and isoform short are expressed in the peripheral nerve, kidney, liver, striated muscle, fibroblasts and skin, and is found as a hybrid receptor with IGF1R which also binds IGF1 in muscle, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, hepatoma, fibroblasts, spleen, and placenta. Defects in Insulin Receptor/INSR are the cause of Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (Mendenhall syndrome), insulin resistance (Ins resistance), leprechaunism (Donohue syndrome), and familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 5 (HHF5). It may also be associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).