Monoclonal Antibodies

Full list of Monoclonal Antibodies

What Are Monoclonal Antibodies?

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies. By definition, "monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope. In comparison, polyclonal antibodies are generated from different immune cells.

In theory, it is possible to produce monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to any given substance and the produced monoclonal antibodies can serve to detect or purify that substance. Their specificity makes monoclonal antibody technology so valuable. Not only can antibodies be used therapeutically, to protect against disease; they can also help to diagnose a wide variety of illnesses, and can detect the presence of drugs, viral and bacterial products, and other unusual or abnormal substances in the blood. This has become an important tool in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. Basic and clinical researchers have been taking advantage of them for a wide range of uses. Currently, monoclonal antibodies can be laboratory-produced and carefully engineered to attach specific targets.

Types of monoclonal antibodies

Antibody heterogeneity

Product heterogeneity is common in monoclonal antibodies and other recombinant biological products and is typically introduced either upstream during expression or downstream during manufacturing.

These variants are typically aggregates, deamination products, glycosylation variants, oxidized amino acid side chains, as well as amino and carboxyl terminal amino acid additions. These seemingly minute changes in a monoclonal antibody's structure can have a profound effect on preclinical stability and process optimization as well as therapeutic product potency, bioavailability, and immunogenicity. The generally accepted method of purification of process streams for monoclonal antibodies includes capture of the product target with Protein A, elution, acidification to inactivate potential Mammalian viruses, followed by Ion chromatography, first with anion beads and then with cation beads.

Displacement chromatography has been used to identify and characterize these often unseen variants in quantities that are suitable for subsequent preclinical evaluation regimens such as animal pharmacokinetic studies. Knowledge gained during the preclinical development phase is critical for enhanced understanding of product quality and provides a basis for risk management and increased regulatory flexibility. The recent Food and Drug Administration's Quality by Design initiative attempts to provide guidance on development and to facilitate design of products and processes that maximizes efficacy and safety profile while enhancing product manufacturability.

Recombinant monoclonal antibody

The production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies involves technologies, referred to as repertoire cloning or phage display/yeast display. Recombinant antibody engineering involves the use of viruses or yeast to create antibodies, rather than mice. These techniques rely on rapid cloning of immunoglobulin gene segments to create libraries of antibodies with slightly different amino acid sequences from which antibodies with desired specificities can be selected. The phage antibody libraries are a variant of the phage antigen libraries first invented by George Pieczenik These techniques can be used to enhance the specificity with which antibodies recognize antigens, their stability in various environmental conditions, their therapeutic efficacy, and their detectability in diagnostic applications. Fermentation chambers have been used to produce these antibodies on a large scale.

Chimeric monoclonal antibodies

Early on, a major problem for the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in medicine was that initial methods used to produce them yielded mouse, not human antibodies. While structurally similar, differences between the two were sufficient to invoke an immune response when murine monoclonal antibodies were injected into humans, resulting in their rapid removal from the blood, as well as systemic inflammatory effects, and the production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA).

In an effort to overcome this obstacle, approaches using recombinant DNA have been explored since the late 1980s. In one approach, mouse DNA encoding the binding portion of a monoclonal antibody was merged with human antibody-producing DNA in living cells. The expression of this chimeric DNA through cell culture yielded partially mouse, partially human monoclonal antibodies. For this product, the descriptive terms "chimeric" and "humanised" monoclonal antibody have been used to reflect the combination of mouse and human DNA sources used in the recombinant process.

"Fully" human monoclonal antibodies

Ever since the discovery that monoclonal antibodies could be generated, scientists have targeted the creation of "fully" human antibodies to avoid some of the side effects of humanised or chimeric antibodies. Two successful approaches have been identified: transgenic mice and phage display.

Transgenic mice technology is by far the most successful approach to making "fully" human monoclonal antibody therapeutics: 7 of the 9 "fully" human monoclonal antibody therapeutics on the market were derived in this manner. Transgenic mice have been exploited by a number of commercial organisations:

1. Medarex — who marketed their UltiMab platform. Medarex were acquired in July 2009 by Bristol Myers Squibb
2. Abgenix — who marketed their Xenomouse technology. Abgenix were acquired in April 2006 by Amgen.
3. Regeneron's VelocImmune technology.
4. Kymab - who market their Kymouse technology.
5. Open Monoclonal Technology's OmniRat™ and OmniMouse™ platform.

Phage display can be used to express variable antibody domains on filamentous phage coat proteins. These phage display antibodies can be used for various research applications and ProAbTM. ProAb was announced in December 1997 and involved high throughput screening of antibody libraries against diseased and non-diseased tissue, whilst Proximol used a free radical enzymatic reaction to label molecules in proximity to a given protein.

Monoclonal antibodies have been generated and approved to treat cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, macular degeneration, transplant rejection, multiple sclerosis, and viral infection. In August 2006 the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America reported that U.S. companies had 160 different monoclonal antibodies in clinical trials or awaiting approval by the Food and Drug Administration.

Monoclonal Antibody by Host

Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody

SIGNR1 / CD209b Antibody IFNGR1 / CD119 Antibody
Nicastrin / NCSTN Antibody C4.4A / LYPD3 Antibody
IL-6R / CD126 Antibody CD5 Antibody
CD8a Antibody EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody
CD14 Antibody SEMA4D / CD100 Antibody
CD155 / PVR Antibody FDPS Antibody
c-Kit / CD117 Antibody CD27 Antibody
CD55 / DAF Antibody CD226 / DNAM-1 Antibody
CD166 / ALCAM Antibody  

Mouse Monoclonal Antibody

SerpinA5 Antibody MMP-9 / CLG4B Antibody
G-CSFR / CD114 / CSF3R Antibody vWF Antibody
IL1RL1 / ST2 Antibody CD32a / FCGR2A Antibody
Contactin 3 / CNTN3 Antibody CNDP1 Antibody
aFGF / FGF1 Antibody TNF-alpha / TNFA Antibody
PCSK9 / NARC1 Antibody IL33 / NF-HEV Antibody
IL12B / NKSF2 / P40 Antibody THPO / TPO Antibody
CD16a / FCGR3A Antibody NRP2 / Neurophilin-2 Antibody
IL13 / ALRH Antibody  

Monoclonal Antibody by Species

Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody

SerpinA5 Antibody IL13 / ALRH Antibody
G-CSFR / CD114 / CSF3R Antibody MMP-9 / CLG4B Antibody
IL1RL1 / ST2 Antibody vWF Antibody
Contactin 3 / CNTN3 Antibody CD32a / FCGR2A Antibody
aFGF / FGF1 Antibody CNDP1 Antibody
PCSK9 / NARC1 Antibody TNF-alpha / TNFA Antibody
IL12B / NKSF2 / P40 Antibody IL33 / NF-HEV Antibody
CD16a / FCGR3A Antibody  

Anti-Mouse Monoclonal Antibody

ASAH2 / HNAC1 Antibody IL6RA / CD126 Antibody
CD5L / Aim Antibody MCPT-1 / MCP-1 Antibody
SerpinF2 / SERPINF2 Antibody CD112 / Nectin-2 / PVRL2 Antibody
CD155 / PVR / NECL5 Antibody CD16-2 / FCGR4 Antibody
CD38 Antibody CD64 / FCGR1 Antibody
CD226 / DNAM-1 / PTA1 Antibody REN1 / Renin-1 Antibody
PIGR / Poly-Ig Receptor Antibody SFTPD / SP-D / SFTP4 Antibody
CD14 Antibody  

Anti-Rat Monoclonal Antibody

E-cad Antibody GP73 Antibody
EpCAM Antibody Cytokeratin 14 Antibody
TROP2 Antibody Ki-67 Antibody
EGFR Antibody Olig-2 Antibody
CEACAM5 Antibody Vimentin Antibody
Granzyme B Antibody NES peptide3 Antibody
VWF Antibody GCDFP15 Antibody
B7H1 Antibody  

Anti-Viral Monoclonal Antibody

HCMV gB Antibody HCoV spike glycoprotein Antibody
HIV-1 gp120 Antibody HPV16 L1 Antibody
RSV / RSV-F Antibody MERS-CoV Nucleocapsid Antibody
HIV-1 p24 Antibody MERS-CoV Spike Antibody
HIV-1 gp140 Antibody HCoV glycoprotein Antibody
RSV RSV-G Antibody MERS-CoV Spike Protein Antibody
HIV-1 Gag-p24 Antibody  

Anti-Influenza Monoclonal Antibody

Swine H1N1 HA Antibody Influenza A H5N1 HA Antibody
Influenza B HA Antibody Influenza A H4N6 HA Antibody
Influenza A HA Antibody Influenza A H3N2 HA Antibody
Influenza A HA Antibody Influenza A H1N3 HA Antibody
Influenza A H9N2 HA Antibody Influenza A H1N1 HA Antibody
Influenza A H8N4 HA Antibody Influenza A H7N9 HA Antibody
Influenza A H7N7 HA Antibody Influenza A H7N9 NP Antibody
Influenza A H6N1 HA Antibody  

Anti-Other Monoclonal Antibody

TNF-alpha / TNFA Antibody IGFBP2 Antibody
SFTPD / SP-D / SFTP4 Antibody IGFBP-2 / IGFBP2 Antibody
p53 / TP53 Antibody HER3 / ErbB3 Antibody
flagellin / flaA Antibody Ferret CD20 / MS4A1 Antibody
KIM-1 / TIMD-1 / HAVCR1 Antibody c-MET / HGFR Antibody
KIM-1 / TIM1 / HACVR1 Antibody Clostridium Perfringens
IL18 / Interleukin-18 Antibody CD8a Antibody
IGFBP4 Antibody  

Monoclonal Antibody by Application

ELISA Monoclonal Antibody

SerpinA5 Antibody IL13 / ALRH Antibody
G-CSFR / CD114 / CSF3R Antibody MMP-9 / CLG4B Antibody
IL1RL1 / ST2 Antibody CD32a / FCGR2A Antibody
Contactin 3 / CNTN3 Antibody CNDP1 Antibody
aFGF / FGF1 Antibody IL33 / NF-HEV Antibody
PCSK9 / NARC1 Antibody PCSK9 / NARC1 Antibody
IL12B / NKSF2 / P40 Antibody RBP4 / PRBP Antibody
CD16a / FCGR3A Antibody  

Western Blot (WB) Monoclonal Antibody

TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1 Antibody LRPAP1 Antibody
ICAM-1 / CD54 Antibody NRG1-beta 1 Antibody
TFPI / LACI / EPI Antibody GSTM2 Antibody
Cystatin 7 / CST7 Antibody UCHL1 Antibody
IL17RA / CD217 Antibody Cathepsin L1 / CTSL1 Antibody
IGFBP2 Antibody NME1 / NDKA Antibody
MMP-2 Antibody DKK-1 Antibody
ALDH7A1 Antibody  

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Monoclonal Antibody

CD146 / MCAM Antibody PARP-1 / PARP Antibody
SFTPD / SP-D / SFTP4 Antibody TrkA / NTRK1 Antibody
p53 / TP53 Antibody CD38 Antibody
CD31 / PECAM1 Antibody WAP5 / WFDC2 / HE4 Antibody
CD3d / CD3 delta Antibody CALML5 Antibody
IL-33 Antibody Cadherin-17 / CDH17 Antibody
S100A7 Antibody GOLM1 / GP73 Antibody
S100A8 Antibody  

Immunoprecipitation (IP) Monoclonal Antibody

CD146 / MCAM Antibody BCL2 / Bcl-2 Antibody
CD3d / CD3 delta Antibody Galectin-1 / LGALS1 Antibody
LRPAP1 / A2MRAP Antibody SerpinB1 / ELANH2 Antibody
B2M / beta-2 Antibody CD19 Antibody
GSTM2 Antibody CA2 Antibody
AK4 / AK3L1 Antibody CTHRC1 Antibody
PPM1G Antibody PARK7 / DJ-1 Antibody
LRPAP1 Antibody  

Immunofluorescence (IF) Monoclonal Antibody

Hemopexin / HPX Antibody LRPAP1 / A2MRAP Antibody
Granulin / GRN Antibody CD16-2 / FCGR4 Antibody
CD137L / TNFSF9 Antibody P4HB / ERBA2L Antibody
CD146 / MCAM Antibody CD97 Antibody
Fetuin-A / AHSG Antibody S100A13 Antibody
SPARCL1 / MAST9 Antibody CD55 / DAF Antibody
APOH Antibody LDLR / LDL Receptor Antibody
ADAM15 / MDC15 Antibody  

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Monoclonal Antibody

HER2 / ErbB2 / CD340 Antibody CD112 / PVRL2 Antibody
ADAM15 / MDC15 Antibody MICB / MIC-B Antibody
CD16-2 / FCGR4 Antibody CD31 / PECAM1 Antibody
CD32b / FCGR2B Antibody CD48 / SLAMF2 Antibody
Endoglin / CD105 Antibody ICAM-1 / CD54 Antibody
CD27 / TNFRSF7 Antibody CD97 Antibody
CEACAM6 / CD66c Antibody CD27 / TNFRSF7 Antibody
ICAM-1 / CD54 Antibody  

Featured Monoclonal Antibodies

TNF-alpha / TNFA Antibody CD13 / ANPEP Antibody
Ephrin-A1 / EFNA1 Antibody CLEC4N / CLEC6A / Dectin-2 Antibody
IL13RA1 / CD213a1 Antibody Prostasin / PRSS8 Antibody
IL18R1 / CD218a Antibody CD97 Antibody
LAMP1 / CD107a Antibody CEACAM6 / CD66c Antibody
HAI-2 / SPINT2 Antibody DLL1 / Delta-1 Antibody
TROP2 / TACSTD2 Antibody CD50 / ICAM-3 Antibody
TrkB / NTRK2 Antibody SULT2A1 / STD Antibody
Osteonectin / SPARC Antibody IL17RA / CD217 Antibody
SerpinD1 / HCII Antibody SerpinF2 / AAP Antibody
CADM3 / NECL1 / IGSF4B Antibody Contactin 3 / CNTN3 Antibody
IL1R2 / IL1RB / CD121b Antibody SLAMF7 / CRACC Antibody
CD4 Antibody CD32b / FCGR2B Antibody
IL13RA2 / CD213A2 Antibody CD112 / Nectin-2 / PVRL2 Antibody
VEGF-D / FIGF / VEGFD Antibody CD86 / ETC-1 / B7-2 Antibody
HER2 / ErbB2 / CD340 Antibody PD1 / PDCD1 Antibody

Monoclonal Antibody Related Products

Secondary Antibody

Goat Anti-Human IgG-Fc Antibody Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Human IgG Antibody Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgM Antibody
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG-Fc Antibody Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody Mouse Anti-Human IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Rat IgG Antibody Mouse Anti-Human IgG Fc Antibody
Goat Anti-Mouse IgG-Fc Antibody Rabbit Anti-Human IgG Fc Antibody

Polyclonal Antibody

SERPINA5 Pab Antibody DKK3 Pab Antibody
CNTN3 Pab Antibody CNTN2 Pab Antibody
FGF1 Pab Antibody GZMB Pab Antibody
PCSK9 Pab Antibody IL6R Pab Antibody
MMP9 Pab Antibody THPO Pab Antibody
VWF Pab Antibody NRP2 Pab Antibody
TNF Pab Antibody SOST Pab Antibody
HA Pab Antibody  

Loading Control Antibody

β-Actin Antibody Tubulin Antibody
Histone H3 Antibody GAPDH Antibody

Antibody

Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Antibody
- Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Antibody Features
- Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Products Center
- Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Technology Center