Neuregulin-2 (NRG2) is a novel member of the neuregulin family of growth and differentiation factors. Through interaction with the ErbB family of receptors, neuregulin-2 induces the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal, glial and other types of cells. A mutation in NRG2 disrupted the induction of nitrate-responsive genes after nitrate treatment by an ammonium-independent mechanism. The nitrate content in roots was lower in the mutants than in the wild type, which may have resulted from reduced expression of NRT1.1 (also called NPF6.3, encoding a nitrate transporter/receptor) and upregulation of NRT1.8 (also called NPF7.2, encoding a xylem nitrate transporter). NRG2 plays a key role in nitrate regulation in part through modulating NRT1.1 expression and may function with NLP7 via their physical interaction.