phospholipase A2, also known as Phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 1B, Group IB phospholipase A2, PLA2 and PLA2G1B, is a secreted protein that belongs to the phospholipase A2 family. Phospholipase A2 / PLA2G1B catalyzes the release of fatty acids from glycero-3-phosphocholines. The best known varieties are the digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens by the pancreas of mammals. Sequences of pancreatic Phospholipase A2 / PLA2G1B enzymes from a variety of mammals have been reported. One striking feature of these enzymes is their close homology to venom phospholipases of snakes. Other forms of Phospholipase A2 / PLA2G1B have been isolated from brain, liver, lung, spleen, intestine, macrophages, leukocytes, erythrocytes, inflammatory exudates, chondrocytes, and platelets. Mice lacking in Phospholipase A2 / PLA2G1B are resistant to obesity and diabetes induced by feeding a diabetogenic high-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Oral supplementation of a diabetogenic diet with the PLA2G1B inhibitor methyl indoxam effectively suppresses diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PLA2G1B inhibition may be a potentially effective oral therapeutic option for treatment of obesity and diabetes.