Polyclonal Antibodies

Full list of polyclonal antibody

What are polyclonal antibody?

Polyclonal antibodies are produced from antisera after purification by protein A/G or conjugated antigen. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies are isolated from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads. nonaffinity-purified polyclonal antibodies are isolated using protein A/G conjugated agarose. As a result, some non-specific antibodies to the antigen exist in the nonaffinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. The immune response of immunized animals to an antigen generally involves the activation of multiple B-cells to produce a diverse range of immunoglobulin's specific to that antigen. As a result a large number of antibodies are produced with different specificities and epitope affinities these are known as polyclonal antibodies. Currently, rat, rabbit and goat are common animals for polyclonal antibody production. Certainly, many other species such as donkey, camel, chicken and cow are also used for polyclonal antibody production. Several factors are considered when determining the best species for polyclonal antibody production. If a protein antigen is homologous to a protein found in the species being immunized, a different species should be considered.

Except for peptide conjugated with carriers as antigen, full-length proteins, either recombinant or purified from natural sources, are the best immunogens. Peptides may be easier and cheaper to produce, but anti-peptide antibodies frequently fail to recognize the full-length protein from which they were derived. Small molecules including peptides are not fully immunogenic due to their small sizes that are known as haptens. Haptens must be conjugated to carrier proteins before they can be recognized by the immune system.

Comparison between polyclonal and monoclonal antibody

Polyclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies
Inexpensive to produce Expensive to produce
Skills required are low Training is required for the technology used
Time scale is short Time scale is long for hybridomas
Produces large amounts of non-specific antibodies Can produce large amounts of specific antibodies
Recognizes multiple epitopes on any one antigen Recognizes only one epitope on an antigen
Can have batch-to-batch variability Once a hybridoma is made, it is a constant and renewable source
  No or low batch-to-batch variability

Polyclonal antibody

Facts:

• Recognize multiple epitopes on any one antigen. Serum obtained will contain a heterogeneous complex mixture of antibodies of different affinity. • Polyclonal antibodies are made up mainly of IgG subclass.
• Peptide immunogens are often used to generate polyclonal antibodies that target unique epitopes, especially for protein families of high homology.
• Most polyclonal antibodies are either goat or rabbit polyclonal antibodies. However, other species can be used (e.g. mouse, rat, chicken).

Antibody production:

• Inexpensive to produce.
• Technology and skills required for production less complex compared to monoclonal antibodies.
• Production time scale is short.
• Polyclonal antibodies are not useful for probing specific domains of antigen because polyclonal antiserum will usually recognize many domains.

Advantages:

• Polyclonal antibodies will recognize multiple epitopes on any one antigen which has the following advantages:
• High affinity: Polyclonal antibodies can help amplify signal from target protein with low expression level, as the target protein will bind more than one antibody molecule on the multiple epitopes. This would not be an advantage for quantification experiments (e.g. in flow cytometry), as the results would become inaccurate.
• Due to recognition of multiple epitopes, polyclonal antibodies can give better results in IP/ChIP.
• Polyclonal antibodies are more tolerant of minor changes in the antigen (e.g. polymorphism, heterogeneity of glycosylation or slight denaturation) than monoclonal (homogenous) antibodies.
• Polyclonal antibodies will identify proteins of high homology to the immunogen protein or can be used to screen for the target protein in tissue samples from species other than that of the immunogen (e.g. polyclonal antibodies are sometimes used when the nature of the antigen in an untested species is not known). This also makes it important to check immunogen sequence for any cross-reactivity.
• Polyclonal antibodies are often the preferred choice for detection of denatured proteins.
• Multiple epitopes generally provide more robust detection.

Disadvantages:

• Prone to batch-to-batch variability.
• They produce large amounts of non-specific antibodies which can sometimes give background signal in some applications.
• Multiple epitopes make it important to check immunogen sequence for any cross-reactivity.
• Polyclonal antibodies not useful for probing specific domains of antigen, because antiserum will usually recognize many domains.

Monoclonal antibody

Facts:

• High specificity. Detect only one epitope on the antigen.
• They will consist of only one antibody subtype (e.g. IgG1, IgG2, IgG3). Where a secondary antibody is required for detection, an antibody against the correct subclass should be chosen.
• Monoclonals are typically rat or mouse monoclonals. However, monoclonals can be generated from various species such as rabbit and goat.

Antibody production:

• High technology required.
• Training is required for the technology used.
• Timescale is long for hybridomas.

Advantages:

• Monoclonals detect one epitope only on any one antigen.
• Once hybridomas are made, it is a constant and renewable source and all batches will be identical - useful for consistency and standardization of experimental procedures and results.
• Monoclonals usually have less background from staining of sections and cells. As they are more specifically detecting one target epitope, they are less likely to cross-react with other proteins.
• Due to their high specificity, monoclonal antibodies are excellent as the primary antibody in an assay, or for detecting antigens in tissues, and will often give significantly less background staining than polyclonal antibodies.
• Compared to polyclonal antibodies, homogeneity of monoclonal antibodies is very high. If experimental conditions are kept constant, results from monoclonal antibodies will be highly reproducible, between experiments (e.g. very low lot-to-lot variation).
• Specificity of monoclonal antibodies makes them extremely efficient for binding of antigen within a mixture of related molecules, such as in the case of affinity purification.

Disadvantages:

• Monoclonal antibodies may be too specific (e.g. less likely to detect in across a range of species).
• More vulnerable to the loss of epitope through chemical treatment of the antigen than polyclonal antibodies are. This can be offset by pooling two or more monoclonal antibodies to the same antigen (e.g. cocktail antibodies).

Best Quality Elite Antibody Products

Polyclonal Antibody by Host

Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody

EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody CD79a Antibody
HER2 / ErbB2 Antibody aFGF / FGF1 Antibody
G-CSF / CSF3 Antibody GFAP Antibody
VEGF121 / VEGF-A Antibody bFGF / FGF2 Antibody
CD105 / ENG Antibody GM-CSF / CSF2 Antibody
VEGF / VEGFA Antibody IL12A / NKSF1 Antibody
ECM1 antibody ERBB2 Antibody
Sox2 Antibody PD1 / PDCD1 Antibody
Bcl-2 Antibody  

Goat Polyclonal Antibody

Goat Anti-Human IgG-Fc Antibody Goat Anti-Rat IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Human IgG Antibody Goat Anti-Mouse IgG-Fc Antibody
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG-Fc Antibody Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody bFGF / FGF2 Antibody

Polyclonal Antibody by Species

Human Polyclonal Antibody

EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody CD79a Antibody
HER2 / ErbB2 Antibody aFGF / FGF1 Antibody
CD112 / PVRL2 Antibody GFAP Antibody
G-CSF / CSF3 Antibody 4E-BP1 / EIF4EBP1 Antibody
VEGF121 / VEGF-A Antibody ERBB2 Antibody
bFGF antibody Notch1 Antibody
Endoglin / CD105 / ENG Antibody CXCR5 (CD185) Antibody
VEGF / VEGF165 Antibody  

Mouse Polyclonal Antibody

IL3 Antibody ASAH2 Antibody
IL9 Antibody PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 Antibody
IL10 Antibody BCL2L1 / Bcl-XL Antibody
IL12A Antibody CD5L / Aim Antibody
IL22 Antibody APO-2L (CD253) Antibody
ANPEP / APN / CD13 Antibody RBP4 Antibody
CD13 / ANPEP Antibody FGF18 Antibody
ALCAM / CD166 Antibody  

Rat Polyclonal Antibody

KIM-1 / TIM1 / HACVR1 Antibody GFRA1 Antibody
PCSK9 / NARC1 Antibody ICAM-1 / CD54 Antibody
CD155 / PVR / NECL5 Antibody IL-1 beta Antibody
CNTF Antibody CD86 / B7-2 Antibody
CD89 / FCAR Antibody IL-1R1 / CD121a Antibody
CD64 / FCGR1A Antibody IL6ST / gp130 / CD130 Antibody
CD16a / FCGR3A Antibody CD95 / APO-1 / TNFRSF6 Antibody
GM-CSF / CSF2 Antibody  

Viral Monoclonal Antibody

MERS-CoV S1 Antibody MERS-CoV NP Antibody
MERS-CoV S2 Antibody MERS-CoV
MERS-CoV Nucleocapsid Antibody EBOV-G / Glycoprotein Antibody
Novel coronavirus NP Antibody Ebola virus EBOV GP1 Antibody
HCMV gB Antibody HIV-1 p24 (group M) Antibody
HIV-1 gp120 Antibody HIV-1 p24 (group O) Antibody
HIV-1 Gag-p24 Antibody HIV-1 gp120 Antibody
HIV-1 p24 Antibody  

Influenza Monoclonal Antibody

Influenza A H5N1 HA Antibody Influenza A H2N2 HA Antibody
Influenza B HA Antibody Influenza A H10N3 HA Antibody
Influenza A H1N1 HA Antibody Influenza A H5N3 HA Antibody
Influenza A H3N2 HA Antibody Influenza A H5N2 HA Antibody
Influenza H7N9 HA Antibody Influenza A H1N2 HA Antibody
Influenza A H9N2 HA Antibody Influenza A H11N9 HA Antibody
Influenza A NP Antibody Influenza A H13N8 HA Antibody
Influenza A H1N3 HA Antibody  

Polyclonal Antibody from Other Species

IL13 / ALRH Antibody CD4 Antibody
DKK-1 Antibody CD20 / MS4A1 Antibody
CD200R Antibody IL-10 Antibody
Escherichia coli acnB Antibody IL-1 beta Antibody
flagellin / flaA Antibody Sus scrofa (pig) IL6 / IL-6 Antibody
PfLDH Antibody EFNB2A / Ephrin B2a Antibody
CD8a / Lyt2 Antibody KIM-1 / TIMD-1 / HAVCR1 Antibody
TNF-alpha / TNFA Antibody  

Polyclonal Antibody by Application

ELISA Polyclonal Antibody

EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody CD166 / ALCAM Antibody
VEGF121 / VEGF-A Antibody SPARCL1 / MAST9 Antibody
aFGF / FGF1 Antibody CD13 / ANPEP Antibody
GM-CSF / CSF2 Antibody IL12B / NKSF2 / P40 Antibody
IL12A / NKSF1 Antibody CD14 Antibody
CD27 Antibody MMP-2 / CLG4A Antibody
CD137 / 4-1BB Antibody PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 Antibody
2B4 / SLAMF4 / CD244 Antibody  

Western Blot (WB) Polyclonal Antibody

HER2 / ErbB2 Antibody IL10 Antibody
EPHB antibody NOG Antibody
ECM1 antibody CXCR5 (CD185) Antibody
Bcl-2 Antibody CD77 Antibody
Olig-2 Antibody CD191 Antibody
GM-CSF / CSF2 Antibody CD13 / ANPEP Antibody
IL12A / NKSF1 Antibody p38 alpha / MAPK14 Antibody
IL9 Antibody  

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Polyclonal Antibody

HER2 / ErbB2 Antibody IL9 Antibody
EPHB2 antibody IL22 Antibody
Sox2 Antibody GDF3 Antibody
CD79a Antibody FNDC5 Antibody
KRT14 / Cytokeratin 14 Antibody Estrogen Receptor Antibody
Notch1 Antibody CD27 Antibody
GCDFP-15 Antibody CD49C Antibody
IL3 Antibody  

Immunoprecipitation (IP) Monoclonal Antibody

NOG Antibody CD208 / DC-LAMP Antibody
CEBPA Antibody APOA1 / ApoAI Antibody
CD13 / ANPEP Antibody JNK2 / MAPK9 Antibody
CDC42 Antibody TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1 Antibody
p38 alpha / MAPK14 Antibody S100A11 / S100C Antibody
CD155 / PVR / NECL5 Antibody LAMP1 / CD107a Antibody
CD31 / PECAM1 Antibody CD200R1 Antibody
Cathepsin B Antibody  

Featured Polyclonal Antibodies

MERS-CoV Protein S1 Antibody Influenza A H1N1 HA Antibody
RSV Glycoprotein G / RSV-G Antibody Influenza A H5N1 Antibody
Influenza A H3N2 HA Antibody MERS-CoV Spike Protein Antibody
Anti-H7N9 HA Antibody Influenza A NP Antibody
KIM-1 / TIMD-1 / HAVCR1 Antibody, Influenza B HA Antibody
PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 Antibody EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody
CD16-2 / FCGR4 Antibody PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279 Antibody
HER2 / ErbB2 Antibody HPRG / HRG Antibody
PD1 / PDCD1 Antibody Sclerostin / SOST Antibody
Influenza A H3N2 HA Antibody IL2Ra / CD25 Antibody
Influenza A H9N2 HA Antibody VEGF / VEGFA / VEGF165 Antibody
WAP5 / WFDC2 / HE4 Antibody PD-L1 / B7-H1 / CD274 Antibody,
TNFRSF4 / OX40 / CD134 Antibody LAMP1 / CD107a Antibody
EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody NGF / NGFB Antibody
AZU1 / CAP37 Antibody CDH1 / E-cad / CD324 Antibody
CD16-2 / FCGR4 Antibody TNF-alpha / TNFA Antibody

Polyclonal Antibody Related Products

Secondary Antibody

Goat Anti-Human IgG-Fc Antibody Goat Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Human IgG Antibody Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgM Antibody
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG-Fc Antibody Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody Mouse Anti-Human IgG Antibody
Goat Anti-Rat IgG Antibody Mouse Anti-Human IgG Fc Antibody
Goat Anti-Mouse IgG-Fc Antibody Rabbit Anti-Human IgG Fc Antibody

Monoclonal Antibody

SIGNR1 / CD209b Antibody IFNGR1 / CD119 Antibody
IL-6R / CD126 Antibody C4.4A / LYPD3 Antibody
CD8a Antibody CD5 Antibody
CD14 Antibody EGFR / HER1 / ErbB1 Antibody
CD155 / PVR Antibody SEMA4D / CD100 Antibody
c-Kit / CD117 Antibody FDPS Antibody
CD55 / DAF Antibody CD27 Antibody
CD166 / ALCAM Antibody  

Loading Control Antibody

β-Actin Antibody Tubulin Antibody
Histone H3 Antibody GAPDH Antibody

Antibody

Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Antibody
- Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Antibody Features
- Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Products Center
- Flow Cytometry (FCM) / FACS Technology Center