Thrombopoietin (TPO or THPO), also known as myeloproliferative leukemia virus ligand (c-Mpl), is a hematopoietic growth factor belonging to the EPO/TPO family. The thrombopoietin protein is produced mainly by the liver and the kidney that regulates the production of platelets by the bone marrow. Thrombopoietin protein stimulates both proliferation of progenitor megakaryocytes and their maturation to platelet-producing megakaryocytes, and also accelerates the recovery of platelets. Thrombopoietin protein is involved in cardiovascular disease as it regulates megakaryocyte development and enhances platelet adhesion/aggregation. It has been identified that surface c-MPL, the receptor for thrombopoietin protein, binds to the ligand and mediates the action.