Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2, also known as Tissue transglutaminase, Transglutaminase C, Transglutaminase-2, and TGM2, is a member of the transglutaminase superfamily. TGM2 plays a role in cell growth and survival through the anti-apoptosis signaling pathway. It is a calcium-dependent acyltransferase that also undergoes a GTP-binding/GTPase cycle even though it lacks any obvious sequence similarity with canonical GTP-binding (G) proteins. TGM2 is a multi-functional protein which catalyzes transamidation reactions or acts as a G-protein in intracellular signalling. As an enzyme which is responsible for the majority of transglutaminase (TG) activity in the brain, TGM2 is likely to play a modulatory role in nervous system development and has regulatory effect on neuronal cell death as well. Most importantly, numerous studies have presented data demonstrating that dysregulation of TGM2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as nervous system injuries.