Uteroglobin (UG), also known as Secretoglobin 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), Blastokinin, Clara cell secretor protein (CCSP) or Clara cell-specific 10-kDa protein (CC10), is the founding member of the secretoglobin family of small, secreted, disulfide-bridged dimeric proteins found only in mammals. This protein is mainly expressed in lung, with anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory properties. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are the major transcription factors for the regulation of SCGB1A1 gene expression, whereas FOXA1 had a minimum effect on the transcription. Uteroglobin is a multifunctional protein with antiinflammatory/immunomodulatory properties. Uteroglobin inhibits soluble phospholipase A(2) activity and binds and perhaps sequesters hydrophobic ligands such as progesterone, retinols, polychlorinated biphenyls, phospholipids, and prostaglandins. In addition to its antiinflammatory activities, Uteroglobin manifests antichemotactic, antiallergic, antitumorigenic, and embryonic growth-stimulatory activities. The tissue-specific expression of the Uteroglobin gene is regulated by several steroid hormones, although a nonsteroid hormone, prolactin, further augments its expression in the uterus. Based on its anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties, Uteroglobin is a potential drug target. The mechanism of Uteroglobin action is likely to be even more complex as it also functions via a putative receptor-mediated pathway.