ELISA Antibody-receptor


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. In simple terms, in ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface, and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and in the final step a substance is added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal, most commonly a colour change in a chemical substrate.

Receptor proteins are located within the cell surface membrane, nucleus membrane or other cellular organelle membrane. They can bind to corresponding ligands to initiate cellular signaling pathways. For cell surface receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, interleukin receptors and receptors of growth factors, they are usually subdivided into three domains, extracellular domain, transmembrane domain and intracellular domain.