HIF-1 is a transcription factor that transactivates genes implicated in cancer development, including contributors to angiogenesis and anaerobic metabolism. The subunit hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which accumulates in response to cellular hypoxia, correlates with stage, grade and metastatic potential of bladder cancers. Moreover, HIF-1α and the downstream proteins CAIX and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) are all independent prognostic factors in bladder cancer.
Hunter BA, et al. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α predicts benefit from hypoxia modification in invasive bladder cancer. British Journal of Cancer. 2014;111(3):437-443.