The molecular genotyping and epidemiological surveillance of enterovirus 71 / EV71 is conducted by detecting viral VP1. Up to now, three genotypes of enterovirus 71 / EV71 are identified, including genotype A, B and C. Moreover, genotype B can be classified into 5 sub-genotypes, named from B1 to B5; and genotype C also contains 5 sub-genotypes, which are C1 to C5. The outbreak of enterovirus 71 / EV71 appears frequently in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997, and countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan are seriously affected, where sub-genotypes B5 and C4 are found.
In mainland China, sub-genotype C4 is predominant in enterovirus 71 / EV71 infection, and it reached Guangdong province in 1998. Enterovirus 71 / EV71 epidemics is initially restricted to the south of China, nevertheless, it has been expanded to the other areas since 2004. Epidemics of HFMD associated with EV71-associated neurological syndrome have been reported in Anhui, Shandong, Shanghai, and Beijing; meanwhile, there have been sporadic HFMD cases in other provinces. In 2008, 488,955 HFMD cases have been confirmed nationwide, of which 126 are fatal cases.
|Malaysia||C1, C2, B3, B4||C1||C1||B4, C1||C1||B5, C1||B5, C1||B5|
|Singapore||B3, B4||B3, C1||B3||B4||B4||B4, C1||B5||B5|
|Taiwan||B4, C2, C4||B4||B4||B4||B4, C4||B4, B5||C4||C4||C5||B5, C5||B5||B5||C4|
|Japan||C2, B3, B4||C2||C2||C2, B4||C2||B4, C2, C4||C4, B5||C4||C4||C4|
|Vietnam||C1, C4, C5|
|Australia||C2||B3, C2||B4, C1||B4, C1||C1||C1||C4|
|The Netherlands||C1, C2||C2||C2||C1||C1, C2||C1, C2||C1, C2||C1, C2||C2|
|United Kingdom||C1||C1, C2||C1||C1||C1||C1||C1, C2|
Bold indicates predominant genotype.
Table 1. Distribution of EV71 genotypes throughout the world from 1997 to 2010
|What is Enterovirus 71 (EV71)?||Biological Characteristics of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)|
|Genetic Variations of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)||Clinical Development of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Vaccine|
|Potential Drug Targets of Enterovirus 71 (EV71)|