Th1 cytokines

Th1 cell cytokines review

Th1 lymphocytes are critical in the cellular immune response and they play an important role in host defense systems for intracellular microbial agents and viruses. Th1 cell promoting factors include IFNγ, IL-12 (p70), and the activation of the transcription factors STAT1 and STAT4. The expression of the Interleukin-12 receptor β2-chain (IL-12Rβ2) is required for Th1 cellular differentiation since it allows for the responsiveness to IL-12 on the Th1 cells. IL-12R activation increases IFNγ expression through STAT1 signals to induce the Th1 master regulator T-bet. This further increases IFNγ expression while suppressing IL-4. Th1 cells are the primary source for the inflammatory cytokines lFNγ, IL-2, and TNFβ (LTα). Th1 cytokines stimulate macrophages, lymphocytes, and PMNs in the destruction of bacterial pathogens. These cytokines also help foster the development of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL & NK cells) that are responsible for the cell-mediated immune response against viruses and tumor cells. Due to the central role of Th1 cells in immune system, over activation or misdirected activation also makes them key players in Th1-dominant autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses.

Th1 Differentiation Profile

Th1 cell cytokines:IL-2

  • • Expressed by activated T cells, but not by resting T cells
  • • Mediate proliferation of activated T cells

Th1 cell cytokines:IL-12

  • • Produced by activated macrophages
  • • Promotes survival and growth of Th1 cell
  • • Sustains sufficient number of memory/effector Th1 cells
  • • Inhibits the formation of Th2 cells

Th1 cell cytokines:IL-18

  • • Produced by monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells
  • • Critical inducer of IFNγ
  • • Functions as a key growth and differentiation factor

Th1 cell cytokines:IL-27

  • • Produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
  • • Synergizes with IL-12 to cause the production of IFNγ by naïve Th cells
  • • Increases proliferation of cells without affecting memory T-cells

Th1 cell cytokines:IFNγ

  • • Autocrine factor in the establishment of Th1 cells
  • • Enhanced by the action of IL-12

Th1 Secreted Cytokine Profile

Th1 cell cytokines:IL-2

  • • Stimulates growth, differentiation, and survival of antigen-selected cytotoxic T cell
  • • Necessary for T cell memory, T-cell development, and self / non-self recognition

Th1 cell cytokines:IL-10

  • • Auto-regulator of Th1 cell activation

Th1 cell cytokines:IFNγ

  • • Activates macrophages and inhibits Th2 lymphocyte proliferation
  • • Stimulates B cells to produce receptors that enhance the attachment of microbes to phagocytes

Th1 cell cytokines:TNFα

  • • A general, potent, and pleiotropic immune activator and regulator of immune cell function

Th1 cell cytokines:TNFβ/LTα

  • • Activates neutrophils to enhance their microbial killing activity during phagocytosis

Cytokine molecules related

IFN Receptor

IL10 Family Receptor

TGF beta Family Receptor


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